Conservation Halton is working with its watershed partners to raise awareness of the hazards of this invasive species, and to work together for an effective control of it in our watershed.
The best precaution against being harmed by these plants is to be aware of what they look like, be able to identify them and to stay away from them. The risk of sun sensitivity and sun burns come from skin exposure to the sap when the plants are broken.
Also please be aware of other harzardous plants Wild Parsnip is now in Halton Region and is spreading rapidly. Wild Parsnip causes the same sun sensitivity as Giant Hogweed does and the same precautions should be taken not to expose yourself to its sap.
Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) has two major negative impacts:
- Due to its invasive nature, it poses a threat to biodiversity.
- It is a public health hazard. It produces a noxious sap that sensitizes the skin to ultraviolet light. This is known as photosensitivity, which can result in severe and painful burning and blistering. It is important to avoid any skin contact with this plant.
What does it look like?
Giant Hogweed is an invasive perennial known for its enormous size. This species usually grows from 2.5 to 4 metres (8 to 14 feet) high with leaves up to 1 metre (3 feet) in breadth. It has a thick—5 to 10 centimetres (2 to 4 inches)—hollow stem. Its stem and the undersides of its leaves are covered in coarse hairs. Its large, umbrella-shaped ﬂowers are white in colour and can be more than 30 centimetres (1 foot) in diameter. The seeds of Giant Hogweed are ﬂat and oval in shape. This plant produces a clear, toxic watery sap that causes a skin reaction known as photosensitivity.
Key identification characteristics:
- Over 2 metres tall when in flower
- Dark purple mottling on stem at leaf junction and base of plant
- Ring of stiff white hairs on stem at leaf junction
Plants that look similar
Halton Region is home to a number of native plants that resemble Giant Hogweed but do not pose the same health risk.
The following are native look-alikes in the area:
- Cow Parsnip (Heracleum lanatum Heracleum maximum)
- Purple-stemmed Angelica (Angelica atropurpurea)
- Spotted Waterhemlock (Cicuta maculata)
- Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum)
- Wild Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa)
The University of Pennsylvania has published an informative pamphlet outlining the characteristics of Giant Hogweed and these look-alike plants.
When in doubt, always conﬁrm plant identiﬁcation with an expert.
Where is it in Halton, and where did it come from?
Giant Hogweed is native to Asia and has been introduced to both Europe and North America, most likely as a garden ornamental plant. Giant Hogweed prefers but is not limited to moist soils; it can be found along roadsides, vacant lots, streams, and rivers. It is often classiﬁed as a freshwater weed and is typically found in ﬂoodplains. In Halton Region, Giant Hogweed is most widely distributed along Sixteen Mile Creek.
What do I do if I come into contact with it?
- If you have been exposed to the sap of Giant Hogweed, wash the area immediately with cool, soapy, running water;
- Since the sap increases the photosensitivity of the skin, it is important to avoid exposure to the sun for at least 48 hours after contact; the sun’s radiation and can cause skin that has been exposed to the sap to burn and blister;
- If blisters form, contact a medical professional for advice and treatment.
How does it grow and spread?
- Giant Hogweed will grow 1) from its seeds, and 2) from buds that form on its crown or rootstalk;
- It takes several years for a Giant Hogweed plant to produce its ﬁrst ﬂowering stalk. Although Giant Hogweed is a perennial, it is believed to die after its ﬁrst ﬂowering and seed set; plants may then still produce additional crowns that continue to ﬂower and seed set;
- Seeds can be viable for more than seven years;
- Seeds can spread easily since they can ﬂoat considerable distances down waterways and start new plants at new locations;
- Seeds can also be distributed far from a plant by birds that eat the plant’s fruit.
Control and removal
Control of Giant Hogweed (and any invasive species) is up to the property owner.
If you are a property owner with Giant Hogweed on your property you can contact a weed control specialist (look in the yellow pages) for assistance controlling. If you wish to attempt control yourself please refer to the Best Management Practices and take precautions to protect yourself from the sap.
Large infestations may need to be controlled with the use of a herbicide such as glyphosate, since Giant Hogweed is a human health hazard pesticide use is permitted for its control, (pesticide use for aesthetic or cosmetic weed control is NOT permitted) please read and follow all labels and provincial laws when using any product.
If you are not the landowner and wish to see control within an urban area please contact the cities’ by-law office. Since Giant Hogweed is a human health hazard it is on many cities’ property-standards by-laws. Giant Hogweed is also on the Provincial Weed List, so in relation to agricultural areas please contact OMAFRA/Ontario Weeds.
We encourage the control and removal of Giant Hogweed but the look-alikes listed above do not need to be removed.
The best control of Giant Hogweed is to not plant it.
Other possible control methods include manual removal and chemical treatment:
- When removing Giant Hogweed it is very important to wear proper clothing (long sleeves, high shoes, gloves, face and eye protection) to avoid skin contact with the plant;
- The best time to remove and control Giant Hogweed is in late April or early May when it is small and still growing;
- Attempting removal later in the season puts you at a higher risk for exposure and is less effective for long-term control;
- Removing the seed heads can help control it, but this must be done every year to have a positive effect;
- Removing seed heads must be done before they ripen. Do not attempt removal after the seeds are ripe; movement of dried plant materials (seed heads) will only further disperse the seeds;
- Plants can be manually dug out but it is important to remove the full rootstalk to reduce the risk of it spreading further;
- When disposing of Giant Hogweed, all parts of the plant should be placed in secure black plastic bag and left in the sun for three to four weeks. This helps to destroy any seeds and roots. These bags should then be sent to the landﬁll;
- Mowing Giant Hogweed is not an effective control method since mowing tends to stimulate budding on the rootstalk and risks exposure to the toxic sap;
- Herbicides can also be effective in controlling the spread of Giant Hogweed, but it is important to use pesticides only in a cautious and responsible manner.
- If you have Giant Hogweed on your property and do not want to risk exposure by attempting removal yourself then look in the yellow pages for a “weed control” specialist.
- Giant Hogweed, Best management practices in Ontario, produced by the Ontario Invasive Plant Council – includes information on the plant, photographs (including pictures of blistered skin), and best management practices for control and removal;
- Results of research trials conducted in Halton Hills, 2010, that examined what management options exist for landowners who want to minimize the impact of Giant Hogweed by a team from the University of Guelph and Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs.
- Summary of the Giant Hogweed Partners Workshop that was held at Conservation Halton with their municipal partners on April 10, 2010;
- Portable document format document of the Giant Hogweed Introduction that was given at the Conservation Halton April 10, 2010 partner workshop;
- Portable document format document of the “Giant Hogweed Legislative Approach, Common Messaging and Outreach” presentation that was given at the Conservation Halton April 10, 2010 partner workshop.